Meditation Posture

As mentioned above, a stable meditative posture during meditation and is very important. Why is this so? The fact is that there are five energy currents in the human body: apana-vaya, prana-vaya, udana-vaya, samana-vaya and vyana-vaya. And one of them, which is called “apana-vayu” is in the lower part of the body and it moves downwards.

Woman meditating and drinking tea on beach

You’d think you could let it go, but it’s not that simple. Having a downward direction this stream of energy “drags” our consciousness down to the lower chakras, and we start manifesting ourselves through these energy centers, which, as experience shows, usually does not lead to anything good. Therefore, in order to cut off the energy going down, it is necessary to clamp the energy channels. This is done by practicing meditative asana. Also, meditative asana allows you to keep your back straight, which is extremely important during meditation because only then can the energy of the body flow properly. The spine is the physical projection of the central energy channel, the sushumna. Adequate movement of energy in the sushumna is the key not only to successful practice, but also to an adequate life. Therefore a straight spine during meditation or pranayama is 50% of the success of your practice. Otherwise, meditation will be ineffective. This is why regular hatha yoga practice is important, because opening the hips and maintaining a proper level of stretching in this area is necessary in order to sit painlessly in Padmasana for at least 30-40 minutes. If it’s not possible to sit for that long, don’t go into extreme ascesis; simply reduce the meditation time, or, better yet, choose a simpler meditative pose.

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Namaste (Sanskrit: नमस्ते, namaste) is a Sanskrit greeting and gesture of reverence, respect, and gratitude, performed with two palms folded together before one another. The gesture is used in everyday life to say goodbye and hello, and in worship, prayer, and spiritual practices. It is also an expression of one of the most commonly used mudras in hatha-yoga and

The polite greeting and sacred gesture of Namaste
With this gesture, we salute the divine in man. God is omnipresent, he is the essence of the whole universe and is manifested in all things. Therefore, when we greet another person with this gesture, we honor the source of divine light, the spark of which is his soul that has shone forth in the manifested world in human incarnation. Thus, by making this gesture to a person, we honor the Higher Consciousness of which we are all a part. All being dwells in unity, which is the original source that gave rise to the entire manifested world, and to which all will return at the end of the cycle of Creation. Outwardly we are separate, but in essence we are one. This is what Namaste means: “The divine in me recognizes the divine in you. Therefore, by the gesture of Namaste, we honor the one divine essence in ourselves as well as in the other person.

Anjali mudra is a gesture of greeting and reverence that has the same meaning as the Namaste greeting. Mudras are used in spiritual practice to activate certain energies or help establish a connection with the deity, they are a kind of sacred formulas that form the realization of a certain intention, be it protection, healing, blessing, etc. That is why mudras are used not only during ritual sacred acts, but also in classical traditional dances and yoga. Like any mudra, the Anjali mudra is accompanied by a mantra or sacred phrase, in this case, Namaste. “Anjali” (अञ्जलि, añjali) means ‘divine offering’ or ‘blessing’ and “mudra” (मुद्रा, mudrā) means ‘sign’ or ‘seal’. Thus, Anjali mudra means ‘sign of divine veneration’.

It is believed that when you put your hands together, it balances the activity of the right and left hemispheres of the brain, so this gesture sets us in a harmonious state, balances, calms the mind, increases concentration, concentration, which brings us back to the moment of “here and now”. Therefore, any hatha yoga practice should begin with this gesture.

In India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, people greet each other with the Namaste gesture regardless of age, gender or social status.

Namaste is performed with folded palms, fingers held together (not apart), pointing upward at the level of the heart in the center. The gesture is accompanied by a slight bow, in which you can say the word Namaste. The wrists should be at or above the level of the rib cage, but not below. The hand positions above the level of the heart chakra may be as follows: at the level of the Vishuddha chakra, when the hands are joined in the gesture in front of the throat center; at the level of the Ajna chakra, when the thumbs slightly touch the “third eye”; or the palms joined above the head (at the level of the Sahasra chakra).

What Namaste means when performed from the heart (at the level of the Anahata-Chakra) is the activation of the heart center energy, which manifests itself in compassion, love, devotion, service, and friendliness. By the gesture of Namaste at the heart you address to people who are on the same level with you. This is how we develop the qualities of humility and gratitude.

At the level of Vishuddha Chakra, the energies of the throat center are activated, which manifests in service and active compassion. By folding the palms of the hands in Namaste at the throat chakra, one expresses reverence for elders.

From the Ajna chakra, the center of Knowledge, where the mind reaches the state of non-dividedness and the Truth of Being is grasped, we salute the wisdom of the teacher and instructor, the Guru, who guides us on the Path of spiritual development with the gesture of Namaste.

What Namaste means is performed by joining hands above the head (at the level of the crown chakra), where the connection with the Higher Consciousness is activated and pure bliss in the Spirit is attained – this is an expression of the highest reverence for God.

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Matsyasana. Pose for Lung Health

This technique and has helped me a lot with lung inflammation.

A variation of Matsyasana. Case in point.

While climbing Kilimanjaro, I got pneumonia. Quite acute form with cough with blood.

The MRI picture was discouraging. The doctor said that the case was serious, home treatment was very desirable, and recovery would take at least a month.

A week later, when I saw the second scan, the pulmonologist was a bit dumbfounded and said that this was the first time he had seen such a rapid recovery. What were you doing? The lungs still need to be worked on, but he is calm about the pneumonia now.

Of course, there was not only “yoga”, pharmaceuticals were also present, but the techniques of yoga, or rather even their right combination, have played a significant role in the recovery (soon I will publish an interview where I will talk about this case and practice in detail).

And now back to the effects of Matsyasana.

As a result of the flexion, the lungs are well stretched and open. It’s possible to activate the alveoli by full breathing, to “ventilate” the lung tissue better.

This technique is very useful for city dwellers, because it compensates for shallow stress breathing, helps to get rid of stagnant gases in the lungs.

It is also recommended that people who sit a lot at the gadgets should do Matsyasana regularly to get rid of stooping. To have a stable effect, practice at least three times a week. Hold the position for 1 to 5 minutes. Breathing is full from the belly to the collarbones, and as smoothly as possible. Focus on the center of the chest or on the smoothness of the breath.

Above are two useful actions of this technique in terms of physiology. But you should always remember that in hatha yoga, physiology is secondary! It’s always your mental attitude toward life and energy that counts.

Asanas, mudras and pranayamas primarily affect the movement of internal “currents” in the body. And the functioning of these “currents” and the chakra system determines the state of the physical body. But this is a separate topic.

P.S. But most of all the support and love of friends contributed to the rapid recovery. So, despite the fact that yoga makes us self-sufficient, it is very important to communicate and appreciate friends!

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Why do we need math?

Posted by August 8, 2021

There are million-dollar rewards for solving some mathematical problems including to go math 1st grade. And yet they remain unsolved, no matter how hard the best minds fight over them. How does mathematical thought evolve-isn’t everything still proven? And why invest huge sums of money working on abstract problems? Let’s look into the complicated world of mathematics!

Tells the guest of the program “Question of Science”, candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, head of the laboratory of popularization and propaganda of mathematics at the Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Nikolai Andreev.

Mathematics is a way to study our world
Mathematics including go math second grade studies our world in its maximum abstraction. Physicists are used to working with manifestations, but mathematicians work with abstraction: they look for those properties of our world purified from manifestations, which can then be studied and applied. There is a terrific article by our great mathematician Manin, entitled “Mathematics as a Language for Describing Possibilities. At the end of his article Yury Manin gives the example of a shaman, who didn’t decide what to do with the tribe, but gave advice to the leader of the tribe on the best way to proceed. Yuri concludes with the following words: “Mathematics describes the phase space of the real world, the space of possibilities. It studies the laws that determine possible trajectories in this phase space, as well as the conditions, the set of information that is required to choose a particular phase trajectory. So it basically tells society that if you do this, you will go this way; if you do that, you will evolve that way. And this is such a higher view of mathematics.

[The Russian mathematician] Alexei Nikolayevich Krylov compares mathematics to a workshop: mathematicians prepare all kinds of tools for various needs. And when mankind has to solve some problem, professors of mathematics – scientists-experts of these tools – give mankind the tool it needs to solve the next problem: sometimes a rough file, sometimes a fine file…

New fields are constantly emerging; mathematics expands a little, and from the new frontiers one can see further fields that can continue to be explored, which will then result in benefits for all of humanity. Here we can give a very simple example – the article “From Lobachevsky’s “crazy” geometry to GPS-navigators”. Here Lobachevsky invented his geometry. He died without even seeing a single working model. And of course, he could not think that later Riemannian geometry would be created. And later, on the basis of Riemannian geometry, Einstein would create his theories of relativity, special and general relativity. And now we, every day using a GPS navigator, use including the general and special theories of relativity. Because if we did not take into account the effects that they give, the error in determining the coordinates on the ground would be huge and the GPS would not be needed. The power of mathematics is that always one way or another these seemingly abstract studies then find their application to mankind.

Does the world only seem mathematical or is it a property of nature?
It is, of course, a property of nature. In general, all mathematicians are Platonists. There’s a little book called “Proof from the Book” – it’s about the fact that somewhere there are written proofs, and we humans can get close to them. And indeed, sometimes you take a proof, it can be very short, but it proves something very important. Actually, the book Proof from the Book itself begins with Euclid’s proof of the existence of an infinite number of prime numbers. A proof that has endured for centuries, and yet is really very beautiful, powerful, and interesting! And sometimes you look and see that there’s still something we don’t know and that’s why the proof is so complicated.

Mathematics dispels the fog – it explores what we haven’t yet explored in our world. It reveals the essence by formalizing and abstracting from something that is already attuned to that essence. And then it remains to apply the resulting laws either to the subject or to the task – it already depends on what humanity needs.

Mathematics Around Us
Let’s talk about those manifestations of mathematics in our surrounding world that everyone understands, and on the other hand, reveal a mathematical approach, a mathematical component.

For example, the cycloidal curve made it possible to create the first isochronous pendulum clock, in which the period of oscillation did not depend on the amplitude. These were the first clocks. Obviously, there’s a lot of math in engineering. Here at school, everyone went over the parabola. But there is an optical property of a parabola, namely, that rays of light passing parallel to the axis of the parabola, after being reflected from it, fall into focus. Parabolic dishes, satellite dishes that look at a satellite, work according to this principle. And here’s a clear, simple example that has to do with high school math.

Or let’s take colors. The way computers provide us with color, how it adds up, it’s all based on mathematics. Just recently we were celebrating the 50th anniversary of the moon landing, the moonwalker’s delivery to the moon. And in 1970, our Soviet lunar program began, and there was a device that we all know, which is a cataphot, an angle reflector. Three planes are mutually perpendicular to each other, and if you shine a beam on them, then after reflection from all three mirrors, the beam goes parallel to the direction from which it came. And it does not matter where you shine from, the beam will come back to you.

Exactly, so out of these little corners, mutually perpendicular to the three planes, make cataphot on a bicycle. And when you car headlights illuminate some cyclist, you see the glow from the cataphot, although there are no bulbs. But you have to be careful – those coming from the right and the left may not see the reflections from the cataphot because the light comes back to you. The same idea of reflection is used at stoplights when the road turns. The exact same cataphot, the same set of corner reflectors, was installed on the moonwalker. And so far, this ongoing experiment in laser locating of the moon allows us to measure the ever-changing distance to the moon to within a few centimeters, maybe even millimeters. And there are only three planes! There is a law in physics: “The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection” and then comes the math.

Or here is, say, an example we pass by all the time: why are cups made in the shape of a cone? A piece of paper can be made into a cylinder or a cone, so why choose a cone? Because cups of this shape can be inserted into each other, while cylindrical buckets or cups could not be inserted, they would have to be transported separately. It’s the same thing we see when road services come in and set up cones. But a cone is a bendable surface, and just a tapered cup would have been inconvenient to use. It was necessary to give it rigidity. This requires a bagel surface – in mathematics it is called a “torus”. As it turned out, even a small piece of torus, which contains a circle, is a rigid surface. Being made of the same thin plastic, it is an inflexible surface. The question, “Which surfaces are bendable and which are not?” – was an important topic, and it is still an ongoing one for mathematicians. Of course, it wasn’t studied for the sake of cups. But once we learn a property, we can apply mathematical knowledge to different areas.

Proofs as the basis of mathematics
When you’re trying to solve a problem, you have to go through a lot of different options. And mathematics tells you right away that these are the options you can’t even consider. Rigor is the power of mathematics.

In fact, even within mathematics, the concept of proof has varied. In ancient India it was enough to draw a picture with a proof and write, “Look,” and they considered that a proof. It is clear that now such a proof is not even considered, well, only as an illustration. One of the big, important breakthroughs came in the time of Hilbert, who began to systematize proofs.

In 1900, the International Mathematical Congress heard Hilbert’s famous paper in which he posed his famous “Hilbert Problems,” which were very prestigious to solve. And it should be noted that more than half of those solved were solved by members of our institute. And here I will refer readers to an article by Lev Dmitrievich Beklemishev, our academician, it is interestingly called: “Mathematics and Logic.” Indeed, logic is sometimes called the basis of mathematics, because proof is the subject of the study of logic. A lot of things were born out of logic that, again, we don’t even realize are based on logic. For example, databases are one branch of this science. Linguistics also draws heavily on logic.

As we say goodbye, I want to take you back to your childhood. I take in my hands the book “The Mathematical Component”, where we collected all kinds of plots of manifestations of mathematics in our lives, and open it on the page “Arithmetic tricks”.

Guess a number. Have you guessed it?

Add five to it. Did you add it?

Now multiply the result by 2. Have you multiplied it?

Subtract the number you guessed from the result. Have you subtracted it?

Subtract the number again. How much did you get?

I’ll tell you: 10.

Mathematics actually simplifies the way we look at life. If you write down the formula for our trick, it looks very simple. And that makes the point very clear. If schoolchildren were reading us, I would tell them: if you put in a little effort now and learn math, it will be much easier to live later. When formulas were introduced instead of words in Viet’s time, everything became clear and transparent.

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How to get your child excited about math? 5 simple tips for preschoolers

Posted by July 16, 2021

Mathematics including subtraction by 5 is a science that really has a very important practical meaning in everyone’s life. We encounter it every day, going to the store or figuring out if the mirror will fit in the niche in the wall. We try to explain its necessity to our children, but these conversations rarely change their attitude toward the subject.

Then we say that our child is a humanitarian and does not understand mathematics. But this is the wrong approach. As a rule, dislike of the exact sciences appears in preschool age, when the baby is just beginning to touch the world of numbers and shapes. Here are 5 tips for parents of preschoolers who want to lay the foundation for successful learning before school.

1. Start with a simple including subtraction by 10

This is a very important rule of pedagogy. To learn something, you always need to start small, not rush straight to the solution of complex problems. Even at a very early age, start learning math by recognizing geometric shapes, finding logical connections, counting the objects around you and comparing their numbers, without being tied to specific numbers. Learn to compare objects by characteristics: high-low, large-small, wide-small, and so on. Move on to numbers and operations with them only when a child has mastered all these mathematical concepts.

2. Use emotions about subtraction facts

A small child needs positive emotions, so he enjoys doing something. You can make him do it from under the stick, but will it work? Classes in math in preschool should be based on a game activity, which is leading children under 7 years, so personal interest and interest can not be discounted.

3. Bring math into real life

Math is primarily an applied science, so it’s important to show your child with real-life examples of how it works in the world of not only adults, but children as well. For example, you go together to the store, and still at home you set a condition that the child can choose sweets or toys for a certain amount. You can not go beyond that limit, because then you will not have enough money. In this way you will not only draw your child’s attention to the fact that being able to count is very important, but you will also avoid unpleasant scenes at the cash desk. Tell your children how you use math in daily activities, give specific examples on events that happen in the family.

4. Create situations of success

Anyone, and especially a child, needs to see the results of their activities. If he or she constantly experiences failure, his or her attitude will very quickly become negative. For this purpose it is always necessary to organize the learning process according to the principle “from the easiest to the hardest”.

5. Don’t limit yourself to numbers

Math is not only about addition, subtraction and problem solving. A large layer is taken up by manipulation (real or mental) of geometric shapes, as well as logic. Without these components, you can’t succeed in science, so it’s important to remember to work in this direction.

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Kinaesthetic children. How to distinguish kinesthetic children and how to work with them?

Posted by June 8, 2021

By determining the leading channel of perception of information of a schoolchild, it is possible to greatly facilitate the process of learning. If we are talking about a preschooler or a primary or secondary school student, the conclusion about the predominance of one or another channel of information perception is made as a result of observation. The teenager or adult is offered to take special tests.

How to recognize a kinesthetic learner activities?

Behavioral features that “give away” a kinesthetic:

The child’s vocabulary is dominated by words describing feelings or movements (cold, touch, hard, grasp). There is a strong emphasis on inner experiences in conversation.
This baby simply adores pets. He is constantly touching them: stroking, carrying them in his arms.
He loves bodily and emotional comfort. Dressing him in a scratchy sweater is almost impossible.
During a dialogue, he does not look into the interlocutor’s eyes, but downward. At the same time, he makes a lot of movements and gestures and tries to get closer to him. He could even start twisting a button on the other person’s clothing.
During conversations, she constantly changes her posture. His favorite position is with his or her arms around himself or herself, and his or her legs are tucked or intertwined. Often slouches and walks with drooping shoulders.
Demonstrates a tendency to be silent. Sometimes such children seem shy and timid. This opinion is erroneous, just guys are lost against the background.
Often relies on his intuition, which is developed very well.
Such children find it difficult to concentrate. They are distracted on any occasion.
The child clearly remembers the general impression.
Memory is turned on during movement. The student, listening to the teacher, can not even look at him, but his fingers over a pen or pencil.
If you need to rewrite homework about present simple from the board, the child will rummage through his or her briefcase for a long time. He will most likely take out his textbooks and mark the necessary numbers directly in them.
His notebooks are unkempt: they are covered with stains and wrinkled. The desk is a mess, which the student navigates perfectly.
He uses recess to stretch and move around.
The schoolboy masters his body extremely well – he has excellent coordination of movements, he is flexible and agile. He has a strongly pronounced propensity for sports.
He has a tendency to manual labor.
Teachers have a hard time with such children. They call them “hyperactive”, “unlearnable”. A kinesthetic child who is forced to sit quietly will after a while start tapping his/her fingers or moving his/her feet or something like that. If the child is treated incorrectly, 90% of the teacher’s effort is wasted.

The problem of the wrong approach to a child, when their way of absorbing information is not taken into account, is quite profound. Specialists say that such children cannot be expected to solve a problem quickly or to immediately repeat the material they have heard.

For example, kinesthetic students take a long time to count on their fingers when their classmates have already begun to solve examples orally. This becomes a big problem for children. They try everything they can think of to hide their “failure”: they hide their hands under the desk, behind their backs, and tap their fingers on the table top. Children need a completely different attitude and patience from their teachers and loved ones.

According to some professionals, all children are kinesthetic. This point of view has a right to exist, because all children of preschool and primary school age are very mobile and emotional. Later in most children, the dominant channel changes to visual or auditory.

How to deal with kinesthetic children?
Children who experience the world in a tactile way find it difficult to absorb a lecture or a verbal explanation from the teacher. Teachers have to repeat the same thing many times, show illustrations. Shouting has no effect on such schoolchildren.

You should not rush and hang on the child a label “a failure student”. The teacher has to figure out how to work correctly with kinesthetic children.

Recommendations for working with kinesthetic children
It is very difficult for a child to sit still for a long time. It is necessary to give him or her motor release. He can go get some chalk, write adjectives that start with i on the board.
Two people will understand each other by speaking the same language. It’s the same with kinesthetics. They will be helped by gestures, by touch, by their typical slowness of thought operations.
Such students learn through memory. Exaggerations contribute to memorization.
The child will respond to the teacher’s remark if it is accompanied by a gentle touch on the shoulder.
Will better perceive the material that has been written down.
Practical activities (constructing, experimenting) are the most productive activities in the lesson.
Physical activity is important to the student. The more effort he puts in, the more successful he will be in other areas of life.
The kinesthetic learner acts, tests, and analyzes. He learns by memorizing algorithms. It is important for him to understand what this or that rule is for. What good is a theorem? How will it help in life? Working with kinesthetic children, you have to give them answers to these questions, to show them the practical use of the material they are learning.

Under no circumstances should other channels of perception be neglected. They should be involved to the maximum. It is important to have patience and explain all the same, and show them again and again. The effectiveness of the learning process directly depends on the number of open channels and the level of their development.

How should parents act?
A lot depends on the parents’ line of behavior. Failure to understand the child will lead to conflicts.

The child will cope with homework in a comfortable environment. If he is forced to read or learn a poem “as it should be”, after a while these activities will only cause hatred. Monotonous cramming of math will not work.

At home, you can not force a kinesthetic to sit still and do homework. He needs a break: let him put the kettle on, give something from another room, look out on the balcony. It is easier for him to remember the material this way: in portions, while he is moving.

It is difficult to study the exact sciences with a kinesthetic, but there is a way out. Let the child cut out as much as possible from paper: numbers, signs, unknowns, even formulas. If the student is holding something in his hands, it is easier for him to understand the subject at all.

Any images can be connected through associations. A paper appliqué will remind you of the material you have learned. The question “What did we learn when we cut out the car?” triggers the mechanism of associative thinking.

A kinesthetic will not learn a verse if he just sits and reads it. When he takes something to twirl in his hands, starts sculpting or drawing, the result will be quite different.

A child with a kinesthetic anchor channel is helpful:

Have a set of materials for different crafts, experiments, hands-on activities at home.
Read large encyclopedias where he will find many answers to his questions.
Watch educational films and shows.
Go to exhibitions, museums, go on excursions.
Kinestheticians find it difficult to cope with stress and discomfort. They are completely immersed in their experiences. It is important for parents to talk to their child more about their feelings, to find out the source of their anxiety.

As difficult as it may be with these children, they have one huge advantage. They are little people who are open to the world, interested in everything. They trust those around them, charging with positive emotions.

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10 tricky words that sound the same in Russian and English

Posted by May 12, 2021

What are cognates meaning? For an Englishman “store” does not mean a place to buy groceries, just as for an American a cartridge is not ammunition. If you meet and talk to a foreigner on a foreign vacation it is easy to understand each other exactly the opposite, even if it seems that you use the simplest words.

“Tones” collected 10 words that in Russian and English sound the same, but have different meanings.

Episode and Эпидод
In Russian the word “episode” means an excerpt or a single scene, not a completed work, whereas English episode means a full-fledged episode of a series. Recently, however, “episode” in the sense of “series” has also taken root in our country, primarily due to the popularity of soap operas.

2. Baton and Батон

In French, baton is a stick. In Russia, they adopted this word and, for some similarity of form, called so elongated bread. The English, in turn, borrowed the same baton, and so called not a rifled wheat bread, but… …a police truncheon. Or conductor’s stick.

3. Routine and Рутина

Routine for us is following a habitual pattern, something that is done mechanically. In England and the United States, a routine is a routine that has no hint of dullness. Example: My morning routine has to inspire me, which translates as “My morning routine should inspire me.

4. Caucasian and Кавказец
You do not need to be born in the Caucasus to hear caucasian in English-speaking countries, because this word can be used to refer to all people with European appearance. For example, this word can be mentioned in the application form if you want to indicate your ethnicity (for example, when making an appointment with the doctor).

5. Lunatic and Лунатик
Do not call your American friend a sleepwalker, even if he or she walks at night – he or she will take offense. It is better to offer him to read: The reason is that the English word lunatic is translated into Russian as “crazy, crazy person”. The word for person who sleepwalks is “sleepwalker” in English. A horror movie based on a script by Steven-who-knows-what’s-his-name will not lie.

6. Magazine and Магазин
Being abroad for the first time, the Russians may well say: “I’m going to the magazine. But they will understand it the wrong way round, because magazine in English means a magazine. If you want to go to a store, say store. Or shop.

7. Student and Студент
Even with such a seemingly simple word can be confusing, because English speakers use student not only for college or university students, but also for high school students. So don’t be surprised if you hear that an 8-year-old child is also a student.

8. Decade and Декада
This is a word that even translators get confused about. In both Russian and English, the term was borrowed from Greek, where deka means “ten.” The catch is that in Russia “decade” most often means ten days, whereas in English decade is always ten years.

9. Patron and Патрон
When you hear the English word patron, don’t rush to judgment: it does not refer to ammunition. In the USA or England, this word stands for a loyal customer or sponsor who is willing to support something financially. And in French, le patron is the boss or owner.

10. Expertise and Экспертиза
This term comes from Latin expertus (experienced), and in Russian it is the name of a process of expert evaluation or judgment. In English expertise is the name of the expert opinion itself. Example: He has considerable expertise in Russian history – “She has extensive knowledge of Russian history.

What other similar but different words have we forgotten? Write in the comments!

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How do I help my child learn? The best tips from the 2nd scoyo parents’ evening

Posted by April 12, 2021

The tutoring boom shows: Parents are getting nervous when it comes to their children’s success in school. Experts discussed how parents can escape the promotion mania and help their children learn in a meaningful way. Of course, the first thing to do is to study ccss 3rd grade ela.

Learning support tutoring: How can parents help their children learn?
Often there is too little support at school. This makes parents nervous.

In principle, learning support belongs in school. The experts at the 2nd scoyo parents’ evening on the topic of “Tutoring and support mania” on November 24, 2014 agreed on this. However, the current school system is overburdened with this task: Children are not being optimally supported, reforms are urgently needed. This makes parents nervous. They start comparing themselves and their children with others, try themselves as teachers, help with learning wherever possible, and end up resorting more and more often to tutoring. In Germany, around 1.1 million children are now receiving private tutoring – more and more of them as early as elementary school.

We asked experts Klaus Wenzel (President of the Bavarian Teachers’ Association), Béa Beste (education entrepreneur), Nicole Tschirner (blogger) and Christian Füller (journalist) how parents can help their children learn at home – and what they should do without. We have compiled the best tips for you here in short form:

How do I help my children learn besides learning
Tips from the parents’ evening at a glance:

  1. don’t try to establish a “learning relationship” at home, but be available as a contact person, give support, praise for the learning path, strengthen the back – this is how parents help best.
  2. do not exert pressure, not even in the case of bad grades. It is better to consider together where the (selective) deficits lie and, if necessary, get help for learning from outside. Emphasize that this can happen and that it is not a bad thing: “There is always a solution.

3) Avoid the concept of learning at home as much as possible, or give it a positive charge: play a lot, discover and experience – simply take time for your offspring.

  1. talk to other parents, join forces – both in terms of learning communities and in terms of demanding new solutions in the school system.

Before your child starts school or transfers to a secondary school, you should take a close look at the institutions you are considering: Does the school offer programs that cater to the individual needs of the child (remedial or remedial courses)? How committed and obliging are the teachers? In this way, you can make sure that the school itself provides sufficient support and reduce the likelihood that you will have to help your child learn every day.

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Posted by April 12, 2021

In linguistics, cognate meaning, also called lexical cognates, are words that have a common etymological origin. Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish , disk and desk and the German word Tisch (“table”) are cognates because they all come from Latin discus , which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings, and although there are usually some similar sounds or letters in the words, they may appear to be dissimilar. Some words sound similar, but do not come from the same root; these are called false cognates, while some are truly cognate but differ in meaning; these are called false friends.

What is a cognate: characteristics

Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben (“to die”) all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną (“die”). Discus is from Greek δίσκος (from the verb δικεῖν “to throw”). A later and separate English reflex of discus, probably through medieval Latin desca, is desk (see OED s.v. desk).

In addition, related words do not necessarily have to have similar forms: English father, French père and Armenian Armenian այր (hayr) all come directly from Proto-Indo-European * ph₂tḗr. The extreme case is Armenian երկու (erku) and English two, which are derived from Proto-Indo-European * dwóh₁ (note that the sound change * dw> erk in Armenian is common).

Words that are exactly the same:

minute (time)
route (road)

Similar words are as follows:


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5 Things You Should be Doing the Week Before the Big Test

The intensive SHSAT course runs for the first six or seven weeks
The intensive SHSAT course runs for the first six or seven weeks

You spend months preparing for the SAT or ACT. You take endless practice tests, expand your vocabulary, brush up on your math, and generally pour countless hours (often in a class or with a tutor) into getting ready for the test. The main idea reading passages of SAT 

With all that time and energy spent, you want to do everything you can the week before the test to make sure you’re firing on all cylinders on the big day. So here’s a list of things you can do the week before the test to make sure you’re ready to go as test day approaches.

1. Make sure you get enough sleep.

This one should be obvious, but it’s really easy to get caught up in everything you have going on at school — homework, activities, friends — and forget that one of the keys to success on these lengthy tests is being well-rested. Try to get at least seven hours a night the week leading up to the test; you should ideally get between eight and nine a night, which may require adjusting your sleep schedule and going to sleep a little earlier each night.

2. Eat well and stay active.

How you eat impacts how you feel, and exercise helps to improve both mood and focus. I wouldn’t expect anyone to suddenly develop perfect eating and exercise habits the week before the test, but try to put extra effort into whatever your particular versions of “eating well” and “being active” are the week leading up to the test. In particular, even if you don’t normally eat breakfast, make sure you have a healthy breakfast on the day of the test!

3. Make sure you know exactly where your testing center is and how to get there.

I cannot stress this one enough. I’ve had students miss tests because they couldn’t find the testing center. You should not only find it on Google Maps (or a similar service) the week before the test, but you should also actually figure out how you’re going to get there and, if it’s someplace you’ve never been before, make a trip there the previous weekend. Do this at the same time you expect to travel on the big day, bright and early in the morning, so you can gauge how long the trip will take, where you’ll be parking if you drive, and so forth. If you live in a major city and plan to take public transportation to get to the testing center, make sure to monitor any service announcements for the weekend of the test.

In short, make sure you know exactly where the test is, exactly how long it will take you to get there, and exactly how you’ll get there. Figure out the absolute most time the trip could take (barring emergency), then add about 15 minutes on top of that, so there’s no chance you’ll be late.

4. Study the right things.

People like to cram. And, honestly, for certain types of studying, cramming can be pretty useful. It’s a solid way to put simple information into your short term memory (and you’ll promptly forget it a few days later). So if you’re going to do any last minute studying — and if you’ve done a good job preparing for the test, you may not need to! —you want to pick the sorts of things that are susceptible to cramming. For the SAT, vocabulary, math formulas, and grammatical rules fit this list; the same is true for the ACT, except that there’s no real vocabulary to study. On this site there are many tests and study materials that will help you pass SHSAT –

That said, don’t feel like you have to cram. If you’ve been working hard to build your vocabulary and you’re confident you know your math formulas and grammatical rules, you can take it relatively easy the last few days leading up to the test. And under NO circumstances should you study the night before the test. Take that night easy, watch a movie, and get to bed early.

5. Put together a “Day of the Test Packet”.

You don’t want to be scrambling the morning of the test to get together everything you’ll need, so put together a “Day of the Test Packet” a few nights before. The packet should include:

  • Your admissions ticket: Bring a printed out copy.
  • Your student ID: or other photo ID.
  • Several number two pencils: You may also want to bring an eraser and sharpener. Remember, you should not use a mechanical pencil or a pen on the SAT or ACT.
  • A calculator with fresh batteries: Here is a current calculator policy for the SAT and for the ACT.
  • A watch: One that is easy to look at. Don’t use a calculator watch.
  • A healthy snack: You cannot eat or drink during the test, but you can during the breaks. Avoid snacks that are high in sugar, as sugar will give you a brief rush of energy followed by a period of sluggishness.
  • Warm up questions: For the SAT, you may want to bring a few simple questions to use to “warm up” while you’re waiting for the test to start. Alternately, some students prefer light reading material. The ACT specifically prohibits any outside reading materials or paper.

Make sure you’re aware of what items are currently prohibited for these tests; in general, any electronic device other than your calculator should not be brought to the test center. Note that cellphones are prohibited at SAT and ACT testing centers.

I have little doubt that students often bring cellphones to Testing Centers, but keep them turned off and out of sight the entire time they are at the Center. While I wouldn’t advise doing so — it strikes me as a completely unnecessary risk, especially as College Board and ACT grow ever more vigilant about the role electronic devices can play in helping students cheat — if you must bring a cellphone, be absolutely certain that it is turned off and that it remains out of sight the entire time you are at the Testing Center.

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